In Ramadan of the year 114 AH, the Battle of the Martyrs’ Court took place between the Islamic Army of Andalusia and a European army, after the Muslim army became close to the current capital of France, Paris, and reached one of the most penetrating sites deep into European lands.
It is a decisive battle that changed the face of Islamic history, led by Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi, who is one of the bravest of the followers. He went to France with the largest army coming out under the banner of Islam towards the heart of the European continent, so the continent was shaken to the victory achieved by the Muslims and their subjugation to the southern half of France within a few months. Charles Martel had to prepare to stand in the face of the al-Hol coming from the East, and Europe responded to the call of the preacher, so the Europeans went out in a great army, and after a few days of war they were victorious, which put an end to the Islamic tide in Europe. 
Many European historians consider that this battle saved the Christian presence on the European continent, and without it, the sciences of the Qur’an and hadith would have been taught in the universities of European capitals now, as the victory of Muslims in it would have opened the way for them to the northern part of the continent, while Islamic sources called this battle The “Court of the Martyrs” is led by the commander Abdul Rahman Al-Ghafiqi, due to the large number of those killed in it by the Islamic army.
Some associate this battle with a will attributed to Caliph Othman bin Affan directed to those he assigned to direct their conquests towards the West, saying that Constantinople is conquered by Andalusia, and that if you open what you are in his path, then you are partners with those who conquer Constantinople in the reward. 
The tricks of politics with religion … the whims of the French right
The decisive battle took place between the end of Sha`ban and the beginning of Ramadan (114 AH), and between the months of October and November 732 AD. Western historians acknowledge the scarcity of reliable data they have on this battle, and refer in their research about it to Arab sources. 
The arena in which the Battle of the Martyrs took place is still a historical landmark visited by the French and tourists to see chapters of what happened in the year 732 AD, and this arena combines landmarks and monuments that indicate some facts, and other starting points for questioning and inquiring about the mysterious aspects.
The religious character of the Battle of the Court of the Martyrs as it took place between the army of Muslims and the army of Christians is not the subject of consensus. Rather, there are frequent studies that confirm the political character of the battle more than give it a religious character. The historical legacy that accumulated over centuries did not consider the battle a religious victory for Christianity over Islam, as it did not start. This idea emerged only in the nineteenth century AD, and was actually adopted with the thesis of the American “Samuel Huntington”, which was issued in the nineties of the twentieth century on the clash of civilizations, and caught a fancy in the hearts of the European right-wing currents.
Poitiers, site of the Battle of the Balat of the Martyrs, is a destination for European tourists
The skeptics about the religious nature of the battle reinforce their position with the nature of Charles Martel’s character, who had no good connection with the Church and its popes, but for some he was one of the looters of the Church and theft of its property. 
While the French exaggerate the importance of the battle, presenting themselves as the saviors of Christianity in Europe and the reason why the Islamic advance on it stopped, researchers such as the Syrian historian Shaker Mustafa warn that the one who stopped the Islamic conquest was not the Franks, but the Christian crowd that united Rome, Paris and other European capitals. (5)
Some ask about the secret of the sudden emergence of the Battle of the Court of the Martyrs in Western sources, as it was until the nineteenth century an event almost unknown to historians and researchers, and the question becomes more significant when some link it to the possibility of the French resorting to this battle in which they “won”, to hide the effects of another battle that took place not far away. On the authority of Poitiers, and they were humiliatedly defeated by the British in 1356 AD, as part of the war known as the “Hundred Years’ War.” 
Abdul Rahman Al-Ghafiqi, commander and martyr of the Battle of the Martyrs’ Court
Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi .. The journey of jihad from Damascus to Andalusia
Historical sources talk about the origins of the leader of this battle, Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi, as he is a Yemeni from the tribe of Ak, and that he entered Medina and took the conversation about Abdullah bin Omar, and met the generation of followers who are considered one of them, but his personality was impressed with a great deal of wisdom, asceticism and piety, in addition to A bundle of qualities of courage, heroism, daring, fighting in the front ranks and seeking martyrdom. He also gained experience and strategic military knowledge, by following the news of the military campaigns of the era of the Prophet and the first companions. 
It is said that the name Al-Ghafiqi came after the Ghafiq, a tribe from Al-Azd, whose original home is the coastal city of Al-Lahia, north of Hodeidah, from the land of Yemen. It is also – that is, Ghafiq – the belly of Akk, the famous valiant tribe, and that is why it was attributed to it. 
Al-Ghafiqi moved to Damascus during the reign of Caliph Suleiman bin Abd al-Malik, and soon assumed the higher ranks there, but his thirst for jihad carried him to Andalusia, where he drew attention to his military acumen, so he assigned leadership positions.
After conquering more than half of France, Al-Ghafiqi headed towards Poitiers, where the Battle of the Martyrs’ Court
The defeat of Toulouse … a new leader by consensus of the soldiers
Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz appointed As-Samh bin Malik al-Khawlani as governor of Andalusia, and separated this vital region from the state of Africa to place it under his direct control in Damascus, and Khawlani moved the capital from Seville to Cordoba, and when he searched for a military commander, he found there was a consensus on Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi. As explained by the specialized Moroccan academic, reciter Al-Idrisi Abu Zeid. 
The governor of Andalusia accompanied Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi in his military campaign against France, and there his star brightened strongly when the Muslims were defeated in Toulouse and was able to gather their diaspora and reorganize their ranks. Within strategic military planning, and when a
Wali al-Samah bin Malik al-Khawlani will witness near Toulouse, chosen by the soldiers as their leader and approved by the caliph, to rule Andalusia for a period of two months in which he restored stability and cohesion to its army, and this did not prevent him from accepting his dismissal and worked sincerely under the command of seven governors who succeeded in Andalusia after that, before he was appointed anew and in a manner Permanent this time, and O on Andalusia. 
The Muslim army headed towards the heart of Europe for the first time in the period between 719-721 AD, under the leadership of the governor of Andalusia Al-Samah bin Malik Al-Khawlani, and Ibn Al-Fardi indicates in his book “The History of Scholars and Narrators in Andalusia” that Al-Khawlani seized Arbuna and then proceeded until he reached the city of Tulusha (Toulouse), which was the battle in which he was martyred, and the campaign was stopped after his martyrdom. 
The campaign led by Anbasah bin Suhaim al-Kalbi in 724 AD and 725 AD led to the conquest of Bilad al-Ghala (France)
Fort Loudoun .. The commander of the expedition was wounded on the doorstep of Paris
According to the book “One of the Muslim Battles in Ramadan” by Abdul Aziz Al-Ubaidi, after the death of Al-Khawlani, the Muslims ’hope of continuing to conquer the lands of Al-Ghayla (France) returned again, through a new campaign led by Anbasa bin Suhaim Al-Kalbi in the years 724-725 AD (107 AH). When he crossed the Pyrenees with his armies, and continued his march, taking advantage of no resistance to his way, until he realized the famous French River Seine.
The Muslims continued their advance until they reached the city of Lyon, which the Arabs call the Fort of Loudoun, where the armies stood only thirty kilometers from Paris to the south, and about 300 kilometers north of the Pyrenees, and there Anbasa ibn Suhaim was injured that was the cause of his death during the campaign, to be the point that he set foot on. The horses of his army were the last things the Muslims had reached in France. 
After the successive appointment of the governors in Andalusia, the Umayyad Caliph Hisham Ibn Abd al-Malik did not find a better option than Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi to restore Andalusia to its stability, which it had lost for a few years, because of the qualities of rigidity and softness in it at the same time, which made him the focus of consensus, so he was a man of jihad. And fighting, and a man of civilization and reconstruction at the same time, as he built mosques, roads and bridges, and also succeeded in reducing tension between the Qaysiyy and Yemeni tribes, and Andalusia entered a new era in its history in which the word of the Arabs united with their qisas, their Yemenis, and the Maghreb Berbers. 
The fall of the south .. European leaders panicked about the Islamic encroachment
After joining the ranks internally, Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi was preparing to invade France for more than two years, when he called on the masses of fighters from different parts of the Islamic Caliphate and came to him in Cordoba, so he gathered the greatest Islamic army ever directed towards Gaul, now France.
The advance began in the early year 113 AH, when the Islamic army headed north and across the Pyrenees mountains located on the current borders between France and Spain, and soon the Islamic harvest was inaugurated by the seizure of the cities of Arles on the southern coast of France, then Lyon and then Besinson, to complete the opening of the southern part of France by entering the city of Sans From there, turn west towards the city of Poitiers, in which the Battle of the Martyrs’ Court will take place. 
The southern half of France was a group of provinces or “duchies”, and the city of Poitiers was located in the province of Aquitaine, as Moroccan history professor Mohamed Maghraoui explains. King Charles, who became known as Martel (the Hammer), after he was able to stop the Islamic advance. 
Large crowds of fighters gathered for Charles Martel, due to his military reputation and the great confidence of the French in him, just as Europe and its Christian leaders were frightened by the continuous Islamic encroachment, and they sent crusade cries calling for mobilization and fighting, bringing the number of Christian forces to about 400 thousand fighters, funded and supported by the Pope of the Vatican and European churches Which prompted Al-Ghafiqi to undertake a tactical retreat, about 200 kilometers south of Paris, in the Blat el-Martyrs area. 
Europe commemorates Charles Martel, commander of the Frankish army, who defeated the Muslims at the Battle of the Martyrs’ Court
The lack of intelligence and the length of the battle … The European North’s surprise
The Moroccan academic reciter Al-Idrisi Abu Zeid records a weakness in Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi’s strategy, which, in his view, is the intelligence weakness that led to the miscalculation of the number and number of Charles Martel’s army. While another academic – Zain al-Abidin al-Husseini – asserts that Martel, in return, had an intelligence force that kept him informed of the details of the Islamic army. 
The imbalance of power was apparent from the beginning, as the Islamic army was exhausted by the battles it fought throughout its journey that began from the far south of France, and it was burdened with spoils that occupy the mind of the soldiers and obligated them to protect them, while Charles Martel’s army was on the brink of fighting, reinforcing its ranks with the fighters of the Viking tribes. The ferocious people coming from the north of Europe, as the battlefield was flat and open, were in the disadvantage of the small Muslim army numerically compared to the French army.
The battle lasted between 7 to 10 days, as estimates of the sources differed, which exceeded the capacity and fighting style of the Islamic Army, often with Yemeni leaders, as it was customary for the battles to be quickly resolved either by victory or defeat, and the Muslim army was advancing in the first three days of The battle, but his number and his promise did not allow him to continue holding.
The French soon discovered a gap in the ranks of the Islamic army, represented in the fact that part of its fighters – especially the Berbers – were taking their wives and children with them, based on the plan of Al-Ghafiqi, who intended to resettle them in the French countries, so they targeted the civilian camp and the spoils stores in the background of the Islamic army. This surprised the Muslims and led some of them to withdraw from their positions to protect their families and their spoils, and while Al-Ghafiqi was busy trying to gather the diaspora and unify ranks, an arrow from the enemies’ side ended his life and his career. 
After their surprise by the enemy from the back side and the martyrdom of BC