Fasting is an obligation for every Muslim, and it is one of the five pillars of Islam. It is also compulsory in other monotheistic religions, but it differs in terms of teachings, customs and timing.
Fasting in Iraq was known with its ancient peoples who inhabited it among the Sumerians, Assyrians, Chaldeans and Sabeans, Mandaeans, but what is the nature of fasting and what is its purpose, according to the beliefs they believed ? Read also The forest of civilizations and the beginning of the history of human settlements. Iraqi Nineveh is an inexhaustible tourist wealth and hereditary neglect The story of “Mother of Sorrows”… the oldest churches in southern Iraq As the Sumerians and Akka dians documenting their relationship, this is how the Iraqi Raya brings to life the Cuneiform script Discover the most important Christian communities in Iraq
The opinions of researchers and scholars varied between those who see fasting as an ancient habit in ancient civilizations for the purpose of religious rapprochement, and those who see that it was imposed by monotheistic religions, but it differs in terms of application between one religion and another.
On fasting among the people of Mesopotamia, Dr. Khazal Al-Majidi, researcher in science and history of civilizations and religions, says that fasting among the Sumerians was based on the prohibition of a certain type of animal or plant food . for reasons which seem religiously related to a certain myth, while the underlying reasons were of an economic nature to try to reduce consumption A type of meat or plants, especially during the days of drought and depression Fasting was not not a fixed and periodic tradition.
Khazali explains to Al-Jazeera Net that fasting was clearly known and practiced by some Assyrian kings, as we read in one of these texts by King Esarhaddon describing his condition after a hungry fast, and it seems his insistence on continuing to fast is possibly due to his being one of the most religious Assyrian kings As indicated by numerous royal letters, and it appears that this matter prompted his doctors and priest advisers to the need to intervene to stop the sequel days in the king’s fast more than that, in order to prevent the continued deterioration of his health.
On the authority of the Chaldeans, Khazali points out that they used to fast for 30 days, which is the number of days that the sun breaks from each of its signs, and that they neither eat nor drink. sunrise to sunset, as if the fast is directed towards the sun (sun) and the breakfast is devoid of meat except that it includes milk and plants.
For the Sabeans, fasting is considered one of the best actions, and it is divided into two parts, the great and the minor. This is according to the book Fasting for the Mandaeans, by Hussam Hashem Al-Eidani.
The great fast is the fasting of the soul with the heart, mind and conscience, sight, speech and hearing, and preventing it from falling into forbidden things.
As for the minor fast, it is the fasting of the body in relation to the pleasures of the world, and the purpose of this is to subjugate the soul in the body and to tame it. And minor fasting is considered a compulsory duty for the Sabeans within 36 days spread throughout the year. Publicity
From the Koran
Islamic thought scholar Muhammad al-Bukhari believes that knowledge of the history of fasting in humans can be deduced from the Holy Quran, as it is historically the most reliable for documenting certain practices among peoples and religions across the world. history, and from this point of view the historical depth of the practice of fasting among the various religions is understood.
Al-Bukhari tells Al-Jazeera Net that if there is a religious text for ritual fasting in the divine books, then how is the practice of fasting understood among non-monotheistic religions, considering that the avoidance of this behavior from belief of heavenly religions to other beliefs is a natural thing because of cultural contact, and as with different peoples, these practices have been disclosed to them. Or that they were the origin of divine religions, so they deviated and some of the vestiges of worship remained in them, including fasting.
He added that fasting has a positive effect on human health and that statutory religions cannot discover it without prior knowledge of a perceived power that exceeds the capacities of human beings to legalize what is beneficial and harmful to the practices of worship process in any form. , indicating that there are those who claim that fasting is in religion. Abrahamic and ancient Hinduism, as well as in Buddhist religions, have a divine religious origin which is understood throughout the text of the Qur’an (and that there is a nation without a disturbing precedent) and fasting was imposed on the prophets. and to the peoples and persons sent to them, this practice has therefore been passed down from generation to generation.
For whom the fast is written
Muslim scholars claim that what the noble verse (O those who believe, fasting is prescribed for you, as it was written for those who came before you) means is the divine religions that predated Islam.
And instead of his clarification of the interpretation of the noble verse (The fast was written on you as it was written on those before you), the official spokesperson of the Iraqi Dar Al Iftaa and a member of the General Secretariat of the Iraqi Fiqh The Council for Islamic Unity, Sheikh Amer Al-Bayati, tells Al-Jazeera Net that he has written the meaning of an obligation.
He explained that what is meant by “those who preceded you” are the People of the Book, that is to say the monotheistic religions, and fasting has been imposed on them, that is to say to refrain from eating, drinking and decomposing with the pure intention of Almighty God, because of zakat and purity of the soul.
Quran interpretation teacher in possession of Anise souls for Islamic studies, Sheikh Montasser al-Tai sees out of the verse (each makes you a law and a way) and says (O you who believe! Fasting is also prescribed for those in front of you, so that you are careful). Based on the noble verse (The religion for God is Islam), which is submission to God in monotheism, which is the common denominator of all heavenly laws, however, these laws may converge in some of their teachings and rules or can separate while maintaining submission to God, submission and piety.
Al-Tai told Al-Jazeera: Fasting is the best example of a place where divine laws meet, although some of its forms and teachings differ from law to law.
He added: “When we compare and show the similarities and similarities in the divine books, we are forced to show our reservations about some distortion of what is in the divine books other than the Quran.”
Al-Ta’i adds: Fasting is present in divine laws, although its decisions differ between one law and another, so between refraining from eating fish, as is the case for Christians, and s ‘refraining from eating meat and slaughtering animals, as among the Mandeans, and leaving a number of things that break the fast as among Muslims, is also different in its duration: it becomes clear that the fasting exists and that the place where these laws meet in a common denominator is submission to God.