A recent study has found a certain thing that doing before receiving the emerging corona virus vaccine (Covid-19) increases the effectiveness of vaccination, so what is it? What are the latest data about mutated strains of Corona virus? How effective are vaccines? Answers are in this report.
We start with a research review conducted by scientist Sebastian Chasta in from the University of Glasgow Caledonian and colleagues, and they concluded that regular physical activity strengthens the human immune system, reduces the risk of infection and death from infectious diseases by more than a third, and significantly increases the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns, and the study was published in Sports Medicine ( Sports Medicine ). Read also Two Corona drugs that are taken orally are under development .. Know them Learn about two effective vaccines against the Indian strain of Corona Corona tsunami in India threatens the world A discovery that paves the way for treating mutated strains … Researchers in Qatar identify sites on the Corona virus where mutations do not arise
“In our study, we systematically collected and reviewed all available evidence regarding the effect of physical activity on the risk of disease and death from infectious diseases such as pneumonia (a frequent cause of death from Covid-19) on the functioning of the immune system,” wrote the scientist Chastain in The Independent. “The study was conducted very early in the pandemic, so that it does not include research on Covid-19 itself, but the results are closely related to the current response to the epidemic.”
“We found consistent and convincing evidence across 6 studies involving more than half a million participants that meeting the recommended guidelines for physical activity – 30 minutes of activity, 5 days a week – reduces the risk of infectious disease and death by 37%,” he added.
They also found evidence that regular physical activity strengthens the human immune system. Regular physical activity resulted in elevated levels of IgA antibody immunoglobulin ( IgA ). This antibody covers the mucous membrane of our lungs and other parts of our body, where viruses and bacteria can enter.
Regular physical activity also increases the number of CD4 T cells, which are responsible for alerting the immune system to attack and regulating its response.
Finally, the scientist said, “Finally, vaccines appear to be more effective if they are given after a program of physical activity, and an active person is 50% more likely to have a greater number of antibodies after the vaccine compared to an inactive person.”
“This could be a cost-effective and easy way to boost vaccination campaigns,” Chastain said. Given the difficulties in supply chains, this might be a wise move to get each dose count. People who are fit and fit are likely to have more antibodies yet. Take the vaccine. “
How many mutants (strains) of the Corona virus?
At this stage, 3 of the mutants are “of concern” at the global level, according to the World Health Organization, and they are the ones that were first discovered in England, South Africa and Japan (but in travelers coming from Brazil, and from here it was known as the “Brazilian mutant”) According to a report by the French Press Agency. Advertising
As of April 27, these mutants were respectively circulating in at least 139, 87 and 54 countries, according to the World Health Organization. It belongs to this category according to the definition of the World Health Organization due to its increased susceptibility to transmission from person to person and / or ferocity, which leads to an exacerbation of the epidemic and makes it more difficult to control.
The number of “worrisome” mutations may vary in each country, depending on the local setting. For example, the United States counts 5 of them according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which are the three spread around the world, in addition to two that were initially detected in California.
The next category is the category of “interesting mutants,” which are supposed to be monitored due to their potentially problematic genetic characteristics.
At the present time, the World Health Organization ranks 7 of them at the global level, while at the end of last March there were 3. The last to join this category was a mutated Tuesday that was initially spotted in India, and is raising concerns due to the rapidly deteriorating health situation in this country.
Other “interesting mutations” were initially detected in Scotland, the United States, Brazil, France (in the Brittany region) or the Philippines.
In addition to these two main categories, there are many other mutations that the scientific community seeks to monitor and evaluate.
“The coming weeks and months will tell us if they fall into the category of highly worrisome mutants that spread very quickly, or whether they will still be mutants spreading without making much noise,” explains Etienne Simon Laurier, head of the Evolutionary Genomics Unit for Retroviruses at the Institut Pasteur in Paris.
Whatever their status, all these mutants are classified according to family or “lineage.” Depending on which mutations occurred, it occupies a specific place in the family tree of the emerging coronavirus – its scientific name is SARS-Cove-2.
Why do new Corona virus strains appear?
The appearance of mutants is not surprising in and of itself, this is a natural process; The virus acquires mutations over time to ensure its survival.
The World Health Organization confirms that “all viruses – including SARS-CoV-2 – change over time, and this leads to the emergence of new mutants, most of which have no public health impact.”
It all depends on what mutations you carry.
Hence, a mutation called “N501Y” (N501Y) which is common in the English, South African and Brazilian mutants; It is suspected to make the virus more transmissible. The South African and Brazilian mutants carry another mutation called “E484K” (E484K), which is suspected to reduce acquired immunity, either by previous infection (with an increased likelihood of infection again), or by vaccines.
The matter raises confusion among ordinary people, especially since these mutants bear highly specialized names, not to mention the absence of international coordination. For example, the English mutant is called “501Y.V1” (501Y.V1) or “VOC 202012/01” (VOC202012/01) and belongs to the subspecies “B.1.1.7” (B.1.1.7).
Therefore, the names of the English, South African, Brazilian, or Indian mutants are more understandable to non-specialists, but scholars do not like them, because they consider that they leave a stain on the countries to which they are attributed.
Are the new coronavirus strains more contagious?
There is consensus on this point regarding the “three mutations of concern”, but this is currently only based on epidemiological data; Researchers observe how quickly these mutants can spread and conclude that they are contagious.
Hence this does not allow us to obtain a definitive figure, as results may differ depending on the restrictions imposed in the respective regions.
Based on various studies, the World Health Organization estimates that the English mutant is 36% to 75% more contagious. In a report published at the end of last March, the organization also cited a study conducted in Brazil that concluded that the Brazilian mutant could be two and a half times more transmissible.
Similar doubts hover over the Indian mutant, this time due to “a combination of two mutations already known, but not linked to them before,” according to the scientific council that advises the French government. This feature could give it “greater transmissibility, but this has yet to be proven at the epidemiological level,” according to what the council confirmed in a report published on Monday.
Other factors can be taken into account in the deterioration currently observed in India. According to the World Health Organization, this can be partly explained by “large numbers of people gathering during cultural and religious festivals or elections,” with no respect for health instructions, according to Agence France-Presse.
Several teams of researchers around the world are analyzing the biological properties of the main mutants, hoping to find out what makes them most contagious.
Olivier Schwartz, head of the Virology and Immunology Unit at the Pasteur Institute and head of one of these teams – told the French press agency – that “there are hypotheses that must be studied: perhaps the viral load is higher, or that the mutated can enter cells more easily or that they multiply more quickly.”
But research like this takes time, and final answers may not be forthcoming.
Are the new coronavirus strains more dangerous?
There is also no definitive answer to this question.
The English version is the one that has covered most of the research that investigated this point A study published on the tenth of last March concluded that it is 64% more deadly than the classic Corona virus, confirming the initial observations recorded by the British authorities at the end of last January.
But in mid-April, other work led to different results showing that this modus did not cause more severe forms of Covid-19, although one of these studies focused on hospitalized patients. Hence, it does not allow us to know if the mutant is causing more patients to enter the hospital than among all infected people.
How effective are vaccines against new coronavirus strains?
According to numerous laboratory studies and the results of factual observations, the English variant does not significantly reduce the effectiveness of the vaccine. On the other hand, in vitro studies show that the effectiveness of the vaccine can be affected by the action of the South African and Brazilian mutants, due to the famous “E484K” (E484K) mutation on them.
The Indian mutant is raising similar concerns due to a recent mutation, “E484Q” (E484Q), even though the data currently available are still scarce. A preliminary study published on April 23 concluded that the covaxin vaccine developed by the Indian Bharat Biotech Laboratory is less. It is effective against this mutated against the classic virus, in terms of antibody production, but it nevertheless provides protection.
It should be noted here that this applies to other mutants. Even if it makes vaccines less effective, this does not mean that vaccination is not effective at all.
It is worth noting that these in vitro studies focus on one response from the body, which is the production of antibodies, but do not evaluate the other part of the immune response called “cellular immunity” (and it comes from T and B lymphocytes).