If it was said “the book,” people knew that what was meant was a book called Sibawayh, which did not need a title, and became months to be defined; Behind this book stands an anxious person who did not last long, as if she had gone through the task of completing the book and gone.
Sibawayh Imam Nahat Al-Arabia, was born in the city of Al-Bayda in Persia, in the year 148 AH. Sebwayh means the scent of apples, while his name is Amr bin Othman bin Qanbar, and his nickname is Abu Bishr. His family immigrated to Basra, where he grew up loving knowledge in its lands.
His story with grammar began from a difficult situation he went through; He composed the language as he recieved an honorable hadith from his Sheikh Hammad al-Basri.
According to the narrators, his tongue had a lock, and it was impossible for him to speak when he asked for it, and Muawiya bin Bakr Al-Alimi said about it:
And when I need knowledge; Sibawayh, the Arab genius, Khalil bin Ahmed Al-Farahidi, was the closest to him and the most influential of his students. He also studied among the leading linguists in Basra, such as Al-Ahfash, Issa Bin Amr, and Abu Zaid Al-Nahawi.
As for his pupils, his short life did not help him in the accumulation of pupils, but it suffices to know that two of the most important linguists studied on his hands: the middle lakhsh and qatrb.
After gaining fame in Basra, he was summoned to Baghdad, the capital of the caliphate and knowledge, for a debate between him as a representative of the Al-Basra school in grammar, and Al-Kasai, a representative of the Kufic school. The debate became famous and people waited for it, and stories indicate that Al-Kasaei plotted his opponent, as he attended the debate in the company of a number of Bedouins.
Al-Kasaei asked him: How do you say in “I have thought that a scorpion stings more strongly than a wasp (wasp), so whether it is it or if it is it with its own eyes?” Sibawayh’s answer was, “So he is,” while Al-Kasaei authorized the two answers in terms of height and accusative, then Sibawayh denied his saying.
And when they needed a ruling, Al-Kasai referred to the Bedouins who brought them, and they were standing at the door, and they were entered and the conspiracy appeared in their support, the words of Al-Kasaei. Advertising
The impact of the debate was a new humiliation that hit Sibawayh’s mind, so he left Baghdad, and then soon left Basra to return to Khurasan, where it is said that the worry and chagrin afflicted him with a disease in his stomach, and he died as a result.
Sibawayh left Al-Kitab, his only work, which forms the building block for all that came after him, including books, letters, and diligence. And the book came without an introduction or conclusion, or even a title, and that is why it is called “the book”; Sibawayh died before the book came to light, and he took care to produce the book, a student of Sibawayh Abu Al-Hassan Al-Akhfash, who published it without additions or modifications.
The reader of the book has two pleasures: the first is to follow the genius of this grammar, which linked the phenomena of the language that he carefully observed and extracted from them its rules. The second is the surprise of the author’s interest in something that he sees mainly in language: communication. The reader does not find in the book the rules of raising, accusative and asserting as goals in themselves. Rather, he finds that Sibawayh’s greatest interest was to study the relationship between the speaker and the addressee and the integrity of the message between them, and this gives the language vitality and the ability to regenerate outside the rigid idolatrous rules.
Sibawayh died in the year 180 AH in his white hometown, and he died and left us a book that does not die.